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Rock climbing is a sport in which participants climb up or across natural rock formations or man-made rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route. Rock climbing is similar to scrambling, but climbing is generally differentiated because of the use of hands to support the climber’s weight as well as to provide balance. Rock climbing is a physically and mentally demanding sport, one that often tests a climber’s strength, endurance, agility, and balance along with his or her mental control.

Rock climbing basics

Rock climbing involves climbing a route with one’s own hands and feet and little more than a cushioned bouldering pad in the way of protection. This style of climbing is referred to as bouldering, since the relevant routes are usually found on boulders no more than 10 to 15 feet tall. As routes get higher off the ground, the increased risk of life-threatening injuries necessitates additional safety measures.

A variety of specialized climbing techniques and climbing equipment exists to provide that safety, and climbers will usually work in pairs and utilize a system of ropes and anchors designed to catch falls. Ropes and anchors can be configured differently to suit many styles of climbing, and roped climbing is thus divided into further sub-types that vary based on how their belay systems are set up. The different styles are described in more detail below, but, generally speaking, beginners will start with top roping and/or easy bouldering, and work their way up to lead climbing and beyond.

Top-roping
In top-roping, an anchor is set up at the summit of a route prior to the start of a climb. Rope is run through the anchor; one end attaches to the climber and the other to the belayer, who keeps the rope taut during the climb and prevents long falls. This type of climbing is widely regarded as the safest type of climbing, with the lowest chance on injury. It is also the first type of climbing most people do when learning to climb, as it allows the climber to climb freely and the belayer to learn how to belay more proficiently.

Lead climbing
In lead climbing, one person, called the “leader”, will climb from the ground up with rope directly attached while the other, called the “second”, belays the leader. Because the climbing rope is of a fixed length, the leader can only climb a certain distance. Thus longer routes are broken up into several “pitches”. At the top of a pitch, the leader sets up an anchor, and then belays the “second” up to the anchor. Once both are at the anchor, the leader begins climbing the next pitch and so on until they reach the top.

In either case, upon completion of a route, climbers can walk back down or rappel (abseil) down with the rope.

Grading systems
Climbing communities in many countries and regions have developed their own rating systems for routes. Ratings record and communicate consensus appraisals of difficulty. The ratings take into account multiple factors affecting a route, such as the slope of the ascent, the quantity and quality of available handholds, the distance between holds, and whether advanced technical maneuvers are required. Though acrophobia may affect certain climbers, the height of a route is generally not considered a factor in its difficulty rating.

Climbing environments
Climbs can occur either outdoors on varying types of rock or indoors on specialized climbing walls. Outdoors, climbs usually take place on sunny days when the holds are dry and provide the best grip, but climbers can also attempt to climb at night or in adverse weather conditions if they have the proper training and equipment. However, night climbing or climbing in adverse weather conditions will increase the difficulty and danger on any climbing route.

Styles of rock climbing

Most of the climbing done in modern times is considered free climbing, climbing using one’s own physical strength with equipment used solely as protection and not as support, as opposed to aid climbing, the gear-dependent form of climbing that was dominant in the sport’s earlier days. Free climbing is typically divided into several styles that differ from one another depending on the equipment used and the configurations of their belay, rope, and anchor systems.

  • Aid Climbing – Still the most popular method of climbing big walls. Progress is accomplished by repeatedly placing and weighting gear which is used directly to aid ascent and enhance safety.
  • Traditional climbing – Traditional or Trad Climbing involves rock climbing routes that do not have permanent anchors placed to protect climbers from falls while ascending. Gear is used to protect against falls but not to aid the ascent directly.
  • Sport Climbing – Unlike Traditional Rock Climbing, Sport Climbing involves the use of protection or permanent anchors which are attached to the rock walls.
  • Bouldering – Climbing on short, low routes without the use of the safety rope that is typical of most other styles. Protection, if used at all, typically consists of a cushioned bouldering pad below the route and/or a spotter, a person that watches from below and directs the fall of the climber away from hazardous areas. Bouldering may be an arena for intense and relatively safe competition, resulting in exceptionally high difficulty standards.Free Climbing
  • Free climbing – The most commonly used method to ascend climbs refers to climbs where the climber’s own physical strength and skill are relied on to accomplish the climb. Free climbing may rely on top rope belay systems, or on lead climbing to establish protection and the belay stations. Anchors, ropes, and protection are used to back up the climber and are passive as opposed to active ascending aids. Subtypes of free climbing are trad climbing and sport climbing. Free climbing is generally done as “clean lead” meaning no pitons or pins are used as protection.
  • Free soloing is single-person climbing without the use of any rope or protection system whatsoever. If a fall occurs and the climber is not over water, the climber is likely to be killed or seriously injured. Though technically similar to bouldering, free solo climbing typically refers to routes that are far taller and/or far more lethal than bouldering. The term “highball” is used to refer to climbing on the boundary between soloing and bouldering, where what is usually climbed as a boulder problem may be high enough for a fall to cause serious injury and hence could also be considered to be a free solo.
  • Solo aid – Free soloing in which the climber wears a harness and a carries limited protection but doesn’t use a rope. The climber may free solo or scramble much of the route but use protection only where safety demands it. Doing so involves placing gear overhead which is then attached to the climber via a short length of cord to his or her harness. The climber then climbs above the protection and reaches down to remove the gear before proceeding- possibly after placing another protection point and attaching to it via a second loop of cord. This “leap frogging” or “boot strapping” technique is akin to gear conservation techniques that may be used in traditional climbing. Solo aid may or may not use gear to directly assist ascent.Indoor Climbing
  • Indoor Climbing – With indoor rock climbing you can train year round and improve your climbing skills and techniques. Indoor climbing is great for beginners because it gives you an idea of what it’s like to climb actual rocks outdoors.
  • Scrambling – Scrambling basically uses hands and feet when going up ridges, rock faces, or buttresses. Scrambling differs from “technical” climbing in terms of the terrain grade in the Yosemite decimal system scrambling is possible on anything less than fifth class. Most scrambling is done in a “free solo” style. However, it is not uncommon for climbers to use ropes and protection on an exposed climb that is technically considered a scramble.
  • Deep Water Soloing – Having to climb a rock and fall on deep water sets it apart from the other styles.
  • Mixed climbing – A combination of ice and rock climbing, often involving specialized ice climbing slippers and specialized ice tools.
  • Rope soloing – Solo climbing with a rope secured at the beginning of the climb allowing a climber to self-belay as they advance. Once the pitch is completed the soloist must descend their rope to clean their gear and reclimb the pitch. This form of climbing can be conducted free or as a form of aid climbing.
  • Simul climbing – When two climbers move at the same time. The pseudo-lead climber places gear that the pseudo-follower collects. When the leader runs low on gear they construct a belay station where the follower can join them to exchange gear. The stronger climber is often the pseudo-follower since a fall by the follower would pull the leader from below towards the last piece of gear. A potential devastating fall for the leader. In contrast the a fall from the leader would pull the follower from above, resulting in a less serious fall. Most speed ascents involve some form of simul climbing but may also include sections of standard free climbing and the use of placed gear for advancement.Top Roping
  • Top roping – Climbing with the protection of a rope that’s already suspended through an anchor at the top of a route. A belayer controls the rope, keeping it taut, and prevents long falls. Most Indoor climbing or “gym climbing” is top roping on indoor purpose-made climbing walls although it’s also common to boulder and sport climb indoors. Gym climbing is used as training for outside climbing, but some climb indoors exclusively. Due to its simplicity and reduced risk, most beginners are introduced to climbing through top-roping.

Source: wikipedia.org

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